Rapid population expansion and booming economies of major developing countries combined with the increase in worldwide water consumption has resulted in an increase in the demand of fresh water resource.
In spite of Earth's surface being covered with more than 70% water, freshwater is not distributed spatially or temporally to quench the colossal human thirst.
This millennium has been marked with water scarcity which has jeopardized the food and health security. The wise and sustainable utilization of this commodity has been a major dilemma for the decision makers (world wide).
To meet the huge demand of water, numerous projects have been developed in the past century. The projects being non sustainable in nature have given rise to environmental and management problems which stifle the success of these global endeavors.